Anthrax
Spore-forming aerobe (balloon), gram (+) rod (spores coming from rod)
Capsule (in mouth) made of D-glutamate (not polysaccharide like other capsules)
Produces exotoxin (edema factor) that mimics cAMP (camping tent)
Cutaneous anthrax creates boil-like lesion—a painless, necrotic ulcer with black eschar
Pulmonary anthrax, from inhalation of spores. Causes flu-like symptoms (and then: fever, pulm hemorrhage, mediastinitis, shock)
Woolsorter’s Disease: apparently there’s enough contaminated wool in the world that this is a thing.

Anthrax

  • Spore-forming aerobe (balloon), gram (+) rod (spores coming from rod)
  • Capsule (in mouth) made of D-glutamate (not polysaccharide like other capsules)
  • Produces exotoxin (edema factor) that mimics cAMP (camping tent)
  • Cutaneous anthrax creates boil-like lesion—a painless, necrotic ulcer with black eschar
  • Pulmonary anthrax, from inhalation of spores. Causes flu-like symptoms (and then: fever, pulm hemorrhage, mediastinitis, shock)
  • Woolsorter’s Disease: apparently there’s enough contaminated wool in the world that this is a thing.
Dina writes:

Sure would love to some day hear about how you taught yourself to draw.

I want to apologize to my high school art teacher, Mrs. Hanks. With enough practice, she’d say, anyone could learn to draw. As a digital filmmaker, I’ve always thought of myself as more of an engineer than an artist. That is to say, I’ve been trained to analyze, execute, and manipulate the photographic process, but not to imitate or reimagine it from scratch. I stubbornly ignored Mrs. Hanks’ advice for a decade.
And then, through a series of fortunate events, I ended up in medical school. As I wrote in my first Tumblr post:

It would be an understatement to say that I was caught off-guard by the amount of material I had to cram for medical school. It seems as though med school traditionally values a certain type of learning—the freakishly prodigious student who can sit down for long periods of time, read stuff, and recall it perfectly on exams. I am not that student.

In an effort to capitalize on my visual learning tendencies, I began learning how to draw in medical school. But it hasn’t been very long, and my technique is nowhere near where I’d like it to be. If you’re looking for solid advice on how to better your craft, check back with me in a few years. But if you’re a visual learner who can barely manage a stick figure, perhaps my abridged journey will light the path to comfortable amateurism.
LEARN THE BASICS • YouTube continues to be a great resource for my sketching needs. I started out by learning the very basics: What tools do I need? (I can’t do without my drawing pencils, gummy eraser, Pilot V5 pens, Tombow dual-brush markers, and Wacom tablet.) How do I hold my pencil? How is a contour different from a gesture drawing? One of my favorite resources is Stan Prokopenko's archive. From there, you can work your way up to more advanced things, like how to draw fabric, movement, proportions, and specific body parts.
DRAW FROM REFERENCE • To become familiar with which lines converge to form a hand, let’s say, it might make sense to start off by copying different permutations of hands (e.g. cartoon, realistic, abstract) from reference images. It keeps you productive while improving your craft. A simple Google Image search will often do.
EXPERIMENT • Even now, I find myself switching things up once in a while, just to see how they turn out. One of the techniques I sometimes use (especially when I’m having a hard time disabling my mind’s eye and accurately depicting size/perspective) is the “connect-the-dots” method. I certainly didn’t invent it, but it seemed to come about spontaneously. Simply put, I try to place dots at important points along a contour—the tip of a jaw, the corner of an eye, the length of a nose—and then connect them. This is especially useful when drawing from reference images. Once I’ve connected the dots in pencil, I can ink the image, go back, and erase the guide dots. On a more general note, because every artist and online tutorial seem to tout their own ways of drawing X, you’ll want to experiment with different styles until you figure out what works best for you. In so doing, you’ll also develop enough muscle memory to begin creating images from your own memory and imagination.
KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE • In their infinite wisdom, Molly and Adam over at the Stanford d.school were quick to point out that visual notes and sketches can serve a functional purpose without being pretty or polished. Why and for whom are you sketching (or graphically recording) something? Understanding your audience allows you to set goals and expectations for your work. Not all my notes make it to the Tumblrverse, and often I’ll spend a little more time on a design if I anticipate posting it later. If you, like me, seek to use sketches primarily for studying or other “internal” purposes, it might behoove you to amass a mental library of “stamps” (symbolic representations of things) rather than try to make everything as “beautiful” as possible. Examples of stamps might be star people, a clockface for time/duration, or a scalpel for surgery. Many stamps may be metonymic in nature, but some may be recognizable only to you—which might be perfect for your needs.
IF YOU SKETCH TO STUDY • (A) Color things in later; it’s another opportunity to go back and study the material. (B) Whereas Picmonic generally tries to match as many syllables as possible (post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis = “post stripper glowing mare”), your stamps may come in different forms: They might only reference the first syllable (Betty Boop = buprenorphine), they might be somehow metonymic (a droopy heart for cardiovascular disease), or they might be characters you’ve created on your own (I couldn’t come up with something for aldosterone, so I created my own character, Aldo). (C) Use the space on the page! For example, in my tableau for Huntington’s Disease, I know which neurotransmitters are elevated or decreased by where they are on the page (e.g. ACh & GABA are at the bottom; dopamine & glutamate are towards the top). You may also use a clockface or shapes to help you make these quick associations. For example, I memorized the 3 types of renal tubular acidosis by drawing stamps around a triangle. (D) Use characters you already know to help you remember stuff you’ve never heard before. You’ve probably noticed I use a fair amount of Pokémon in my notes; I was a tween, once. On that note, you might want to check out Moonwalking with Einstein. 
PRACTICE MAKES SLIGHTLY-LESS-BAD • It’s a long and arduous journey with no clear immediate payoff, but looking back at my first year of medical school, I’m glad I stuck it out and continued to doodle, draw, and design. Besides, it gives me something to look forward to when cell surface receptors don’t. It seems to make some of my classmates chuckle when medical school gets tough. So, whatever your reasons, keep it up! You’re going to be fantastic.
Yours truly,
Sketchy

Dina writes:

Sure would love to some day hear about how you taught yourself to draw.

I want to apologize to my high school art teacher, Mrs. Hanks. With enough practice, she’d say, anyone could learn to draw. As a digital filmmaker, I’ve always thought of myself as more of an engineer than an artist. That is to say, I’ve been trained to analyze, execute, and manipulate the photographic process, but not to imitate or reimagine it from scratch. I stubbornly ignored Mrs. Hanks’ advice for a decade.

And then, through a series of fortunate events, I ended up in medical school. As I wrote in my first Tumblr post:

It would be an understatement to say that I was caught off-guard by the amount of material I had to cram for medical school. It seems as though med school traditionally values a certain type of learning—the freakishly prodigious student who can sit down for long periods of time, read stuff, and recall it perfectly on exams. I am not that student.

In an effort to capitalize on my visual learning tendencies, I began learning how to draw in medical school. But it hasn’t been very long, and my technique is nowhere near where I’d like it to be. If you’re looking for solid advice on how to better your craft, check back with me in a few years. But if you’re a visual learner who can barely manage a stick figure, perhaps my abridged journey will light the path to comfortable amateurism.

  • LEARN THE BASICS • YouTube continues to be a great resource for my sketching needs. I started out by learning the very basics: What tools do I need? (I can’t do without my drawing pencils, gummy eraser, Pilot V5 pens, Tombow dual-brush markers, and Wacom tablet.) How do I hold my pencil? How is a contour different from a gesture drawing? One of my favorite resources is Stan Prokopenko's archive. From there, you can work your way up to more advanced things, like how to draw fabric, movement, proportions, and specific body parts.
  • DRAW FROM REFERENCE • To become familiar with which lines converge to form a hand, let’s say, it might make sense to start off by copying different permutations of hands (e.g. cartoon, realistic, abstract) from reference images. It keeps you productive while improving your craft. A simple Google Image search will often do.
  • EXPERIMENT • Even now, I find myself switching things up once in a while, just to see how they turn out. One of the techniques I sometimes use (especially when I’m having a hard time disabling my mind’s eye and accurately depicting size/perspective) is the “connect-the-dots” method. I certainly didn’t invent it, but it seemed to come about spontaneously. Simply put, I try to place dots at important points along a contour—the tip of a jaw, the corner of an eye, the length of a nose—and then connect them. This is especially useful when drawing from reference images. Once I’ve connected the dots in pencil, I can ink the image, go back, and erase the guide dots. On a more general note, because every artist and online tutorial seem to tout their own ways of drawing X, you’ll want to experiment with different styles until you figure out what works best for you. In so doing, you’ll also develop enough muscle memory to begin creating images from your own memory and imagination.
  • KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE • In their infinite wisdom, Molly and Adam over at the Stanford d.school were quick to point out that visual notes and sketches can serve a functional purpose without being pretty or polished. Why and for whom are you sketching (or graphically recording) something? Understanding your audience allows you to set goals and expectations for your work. Not all my notes make it to the Tumblrverse, and often I’ll spend a little more time on a design if I anticipate posting it later. If you, like me, seek to use sketches primarily for studying or other “internal” purposes, it might behoove you to amass a mental library of “stamps” (symbolic representations of things) rather than try to make everything as “beautiful” as possible. Examples of stamps might be star people, a clockface for time/duration, or a scalpel for surgery. Many stamps may be metonymic in nature, but some may be recognizable only to you—which might be perfect for your needs.
  • IF YOU SKETCH TO STUDY • (A) Color things in later; it’s another opportunity to go back and study the material. (B) Whereas Picmonic generally tries to match as many syllables as possible (post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis = “post stripper glowing mare”), your stamps may come in different forms: They might only reference the first syllable (Betty Boop = buprenorphine), they might be somehow metonymic (a droopy heart for cardiovascular disease), or they might be characters you’ve created on your own (I couldn’t come up with something for aldosterone, so I created my own character, Aldo). (C) Use the space on the page! For example, in my tableau for Huntington’s Disease, I know which neurotransmitters are elevated or decreased by where they are on the page (e.g. ACh & GABA are at the bottom; dopamine & glutamate are towards the top). You may also use a clockface or shapes to help you make these quick associations. For example, I memorized the 3 types of renal tubular acidosis by drawing stamps around a triangle. (D) Use characters you already know to help you remember stuff you’ve never heard before. You’ve probably noticed I use a fair amount of Pokémon in my notes; I was a tween, once. On that note, you might want to check out Moonwalking with Einstein
  • PRACTICE MAKES SLIGHTLY-LESS-BAD • It’s a long and arduous journey with no clear immediate payoff, but looking back at my first year of medical school, I’m glad I stuck it out and continued to doodle, draw, and design. Besides, it gives me something to look forward to when cell surface receptors don’t. It seems to make some of my classmates chuckle when medical school gets tough. So, whatever your reasons, keep it up! You’re going to be fantastic.

Yours truly,

Sketchy

Hypothalamus (pothum?)
Lateral area —> hunger (knock out, anorexia); inhibited by leptin
Ventromedial area —> satiety (knock out, hyperphagia); stimulated by leptin
Anterior area —> cooling, parasympathetic
Posterior area —> heating, sympathetic (knock out, become poikilothermic, or cold-blooded)
Suprachiasmatic nucleus —> circadian rhythm
Paraventricular nucleus —> oxy-toe-cin
Surpaoptic nucleus —> ADH
Functions (“TAN HATS”): thirst, adenohypophysis control, neurohypophysis release, hunger, autonomic regulation, temperature regulation, sexual urge
Inputs: OVLT, area postrema 

Hypothalamus (pothum?)

  • Lateral area —> hunger (knock out, anorexia); inhibited by leptin
  • Ventromedial area —> satiety (knock out, hyperphagia); stimulated by leptin
  • Anterior area —> cooling, parasympathetic
  • Posterior area —> heating, sympathetic (knock out, become poikilothermic, or cold-blooded)
  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus —> circadian rhythm
  • Paraventricular nucleus —> oxy-toe-cin
  • Surpaoptic nucleus —> ADH

Functions (“TAN HATS”): thirst, adenohypophysis control, neurohypophysis release, hunger, autonomic regulation, temperature regulation, sexual urge

Inputs: OVLT, area postrema 

Currently studying for my last two preclinical exams, but I’ll be back in action and studying for boards in a couple of weeks! In the meantime, a peak of how my speedier, Tombow-laden class notes have been turning out since I took an awesome class at the d.school! (That’s an immuno-goblin on the right…)

Currently studying for my last two preclinical exams, but I’ll be back in action and studying for boards in a couple of weeks! In the meantime, a peak of how my speedier, Tombow-laden class notes have been turning out since I took an awesome class at the d.school! (That’s an immuno-goblin on the right…)

I designed this logo for our LGBT student group. My first submission was a rainbow Caduceus, but last year’s president—a medical historian—was very adamant that we use the Rod of Asclepius. The Caduceus, a symbol largely associated with Mercury/Hermes, became the widely recognized emblem of medicine through a series of misunderstandings and questionable documentation. You can read more about that here.

I designed this logo for our LGBT student group. My first submission was a rainbow Caduceus, but last year’s president—a medical historian—was very adamant that we use the Rod of Asclepius. The Caduceus, a symbol largely associated with Mercury/Hermes, became the widely recognized emblem of medicine through a series of misunderstandings and questionable documentation. You can read more about that here.

I’m working on a new short film and taking a little break from posting my notes. So instead, I’ll just post random artistic pieces I’ve worked on—like this image, which was a mock-up submitted for the cover of Nature. Sadly, the associated study (about stem cell self-renewal and senescence) wasn’t chosen for the cover… but at least I’ve got a cool iPhone background now.
Made using actual cell imaging, with some valuable editing by a way-more-talented science illustrator dude I met in San Francisco.

I’m working on a new short film and taking a little break from posting my notes. So instead, I’ll just post random artistic pieces I’ve worked on—like this image, which was a mock-up submitted for the cover of Nature. Sadly, the associated study (about stem cell self-renewal and senescence) wasn’t chosen for the cover… but at least I’ve got a cool iPhone background now.

Made using actual cell imaging, with some valuable editing by a way-more-talented science illustrator dude I met in San Francisco.

Epstein-Chocolate-Barr Virus (EBV)
Herpes virus (HHV-4, hence 4 segments of chocolate bar held by Mr. Chirpes) that infects B cells (inflated B) through CD21 receptor (#21 on hopscotch)
Can cause nasopharyngeal carcinoma (nose on Mr. Chirpes), Burkitt’s lymphoma (chromosome bunny with 8,14 translocation), Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (hopscotch), CNS lymphoma (bunny brain; be sure to differentiate from toxoplasmosis gondii, esp. in immunocompromised patients), mononucleosis (big kissy lips on bunny)
Presents with hepatosplenomegaly (big liver + spring for spleen) and pharyngitis (pharaoh’s hat decoration). Perhaps hairy oral leukoplakia (hairy tongue). 
Diagnostic monospot test (of sheep/horse RBC’s, as seen on hopscotch squares)
"Starry sky" histology: Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophage. Uninfected but reactive cytotoxic T cells hug RBC’s (little cytotoxic dude on bunny ear)

Epstein-Chocolate-Barr Virus (EBV)

  • Herpes virus (HHV-4, hence 4 segments of chocolate bar held by Mr. Chirpes) that infects B cells (inflated B) through CD21 receptor (#21 on hopscotch)
  • Can cause nasopharyngeal carcinoma (nose on Mr. Chirpes), Burkitt’s lymphoma (chromosome bunny with 8,14 translocation), Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (hopscotch), CNS lymphoma (bunny brain; be sure to differentiate from toxoplasmosis gondii, esp. in immunocompromised patients), mononucleosis (big kissy lips on bunny)
  • Presents with hepatosplenomegaly (big liver + spring for spleen) and pharyngitis (pharaoh’s hat decoration). Perhaps hairy oral leukoplakia (hairy tongue). 
  • Diagnostic monospot test (of sheep/horse RBC’s, as seen on hopscotch squares)
  • "Starry sky" histology: Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophage. Uninfected but reactive cytotoxic T cells hug RBC’s (little cytotoxic dude on bunny ear)